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Remembrance-class Frigate

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Remembrance-class frigate

UNSC Reunion, the first vessel of Group II production, post-2561 refit

Remembrance-class frigate
Class overview
Class

guided missile frigate (FFG)

Manufacturer

Chevron Aerospace/Reyes-McLees Shipyards

Preceded by

Bellerophon-class frigate, Faithful-class frigate

Subclasses

Stalwart-class light frigate
Charon-class light frigate
Paris-class heavy frigate
Hope-class destroyer

Built

2512- 2590

General characteristics
Length

535.6m

Width

199.0m

Height/depth

174.7m

Mass

620,311 metric tons

Maximum velocity
  • vaccuum: 318,960kph (Mach 260.36)
  • atmosphere: 32,200kph (Mach 26.28)
Maximum acceleration

1,500 G (14,710m/s2)

Engine/power plant

Pre-2561 refit: twin linked Mark X FURY deuterium fusion reactors
Post-refit: twin linked Mark XVI TEMPEST advanced fusion reactors

Slipspace Drive

Mark 29 translight engine

Shielding system

Pre-2561 refit: not equipped
Post-refit: six linked Mark XVI AURORA Projected Energy Barrier System

Hull

pre-2561 refit:

  • plasma-refractive coating
  • 20cm ceramic armour plating
  • 60cm Titanium-A battleplate
  • underlying shock-absorbing plates

Post-refit:

layered modular/fixed armour (800mm)

  • RADAR absorbant, UV/LADAR distorting coating
  • energy-reactive regenerative nanomaterial
  • alternating ceramic/CVT/Titanium alloy plates, silicon carbide backing
  • ceramic chevron plates/plasma resistant polymer
  • secondary ceramic/CVT/Titanium alloy plate
  • plasma-resistant resin-impregnated carbon nanofibre
  • Boron Carbide/Titanium Carbide/CVT/Titanium ceramic plate
Countermeasures

AN/SLE-311 decoy launcher (1)

Armament
Complement

Navy Embarked Force:

Marine Shipboard Unit (770 men/57 vehicles):

  • Ground Combat Element (450 personnel):
    • 1 Marine rifle company (200 men)
    • 1 tank platoon (4 M6A1 Raiders)
    • 1 mechanised infantry platoon (70 men, 8 M32 Warriors)
    • 1 combat engineer platoon (50 men)
    • 1 light reconnaissance platoon (15 M12 Warthogs)
    • 1 reconnaissance platoon (50 men)
    • 2 ODST platoons (40 men, 48 SOEIVs)
  • Air Combat Element (70 men):
  • Command/Logistics Element (250 men)
Crew
  • 652 naval personnel (55 officers, 597 enlisted)
  • 75 naval flight technicians and flight crew
Usage
Era(s)
Role(s)
  • escort and protection of larger vessels
  • deployment of ground forces
  • extended patrol and rapid response duties
In service

2512- 2678

Affiliation

United Nations Space Command Navy

  [Source]
"No class suffered like the Remembrance did during the war. Every single battle, frigate after frigate would charge straight into plasma fire and perish instantly, each one trying to accomplish what the one before it couldn't. It pains me to wonder how many brave men and women gave their lives like this. Knowing their ship had the worst casualty rate in the Navy; hoping that at least whoever followed them into that howling dark would fare better. But that was before. Now things are different; now we're going to do to the Covenant what they did to us for twenty seven long years. Now it's payback time- and they'll pay in blood."
―Commander Kathrin Grunwald, commanding officer of UNSC Resurgence, to her crew following the ship's 2561 refit

The Remembrance-class frigate was a class of frigates utilised by the United Nations Space Command, which served between 2512 and 2678, seeing several major galactic conflicts including the Human-Covenant War, Remnant War and Swarm War. Commonly referred to as the UNSC frigate, the mass-produced Remembrance-class frigate was one of the most common and long-serving UNSC Navy vessels in service; as a result, its image and presence was often seen to symbolise UNSC naval power. This was in stark contrast to the terrible rate of destruction experienced by the class during the 2525-52 Great War.

Serving in large numbers throughout this war, the Remembrance-class frigate was ineffective and inefficient in destroying vessels of the Covenant Empire not due to any flaw in its design, but as a result of the inherent superiority of Covenant technology. Seeing action at every major engagement of the war, the role the Remembrance-class frigate played in the war is often underestimated as a weak, ineffectual, disposable warship fielded against the Covenant to draw fire from more valuable warships. In reality, the Remembrance-class made up what it lacked in armament and resilience with speed, agility and versatility, and could attempt almost every role or task equally. The Remembrance-class frigate was a true multirole warship, designed to operate in a range of roles and with combat abilities against enemy warships, starfighters, surface targets and stealth vessels, and equipped with a variety of guided missiles and gun systems. This was in contrast to the highly specialised Daring-class frigate, which performed electronic intelligence, surveillance, anti-stealth and orbital insertion tasks almost exclusively; and the Vanguard- and Warrior-class destroyers, which were designed to perform escort tasks and direct combat with enemy ships.

Thanks to a modular construction and significant technological advances since its design, the Remembrance-class frigate was continually upgraded and refitted throughout its service, extending its lifespan and preventing it from falling into obsolescence. In 2561, nearly a decade after the conclusion of the war, the class saw its most extensive refit yet; being equipped with advanced power cores and armour technology, a fully modernised armament, enhanced sensory and targeting equipment, and the UNSC's first mass-produced warship shield generator, which drastically improved its performance against opposing vessels. These technologies were engineered by the UNSC under assistance by the Sangheili, Huragok, Ve'nek and Theran species, allowing Human technological knowledge to drastic change in a relatively short number of years.

After the Human-Covenant War, the class saw extensive service in the Remnant War fighting various Covenant successor factions and later, the Covenant Remnant. Following the end of the war in 2565, the Remembrance-class continued to be used by the UNSC Navy; and was expected to remain in service until at least 2620, with a slow phased withdrawal following. As this date approached, however, the withdrawal of the class became increasingly unlikely as a result of the UNSC's military buildup, itself caused by a substantial increase in galactic tension. This tension eventually resulted in the outbreak Galactic War, following which the Remembrance-class frigate's retirement was postponed temporarily; with the abrupt beginning of the Swarm War in 2633, this was put on hold indefinitely, as they continued to serve against extragalactic Swarm forces. By 2620, the UNSC had over 23,000 Remembrance-class frigates in service.

History

Pre-War

The Remembrance-class frigate, known in development as Future FFGX Advanced, was designed by the Reach-based company Chevron Aerospace between 2493 and 2501, as a replacement for the ageing Bellerophon-class frigate. Although the UNSC Navy had not issued a formal contract for the class' replacement, the company anticipated this and wanted to gain the lucrative contract before other defence contractors. However, the Navy initially expressed little interest in the design, resulting in it being temporarily shelved. In the 2490s, the Bellerophon-class was involved in several high-profile incidents which highlighted its age to both civilian and military observers. This culminated in the lead ship of the class herself being captured by insurrectionists using small improvised attack vessels including armed freighters and yachts.

After this, the class' replacement was re-evaluated, which led to the UNSC Navy placing a provisional order in 2506 for twelve vessels. Construction was carried out jointly by Chevron Aerospace and Reyes-McLees at the Reyes-McLees Shipyards orbiting Mars, with the vessels being laid down at monthly intervals. The first ship was fitted out in 2509, with the others following. After extensive trialling the first vessel was delivered to the UNSC in early 2512, with seven additional ships being delivered in that year.

The Remembrance-class frigate formally entered service on April 12, 2512, with the commissioning of the first vessel of the class, UNSC Remembrance, following completion of Navy trials in orbit of Mars. The next year, the UNSC Navy placed an order for 3,012 Remembrance-class frigates to be delivered between 2520 and 2545, replacing 2,205 Bellerophon-class frigates and 795 Faithful-class frigates on a one-for-one basis.

Numbers of Remembrance-class frigates in use steadily increased as they were distributed throughout UNSC space. The class proved itself as a versatile light warship capable of a range of roles, initially limited to extended armed patrol but quickly expanding to atmospheric operations, escort of larger vessels and direct combat with hostile vessels. Between 2512 and 2525 nearly two hundred small insurgent-operated vessels were captured or destroyed by Remembrance-class frigates, with no frigates being destroyed and only two being damaged (one being bombed by insurrectionists and one striking a mine). Most notable of these engagements included three Remembrance-class frigates ambushing a small group of rebel vessels including a captured Gorgon-class heavy destroyer, the former UNSC Legacy, and several smaller armed vessels. The skirmish, in orbit of Eridanus II, ended with the rebel vessels destroyed and the Legacy disabled, with no serious damage to any of the frigates. The Remembrance-class was hailed as the most modern and most versatile light warship class operated by the UNSC Navy, and was expected to remain in service until at least 2600.

Human-Covenant War

With the outbreak of the Human-Covenant War in 2525, however, it soon became apparent that the Remembrance-class frigate, like all UNSC vessels, was woefully inferior to its Covenant counterpart. The destruction of the Colonial Military Administration-operated frigates Vostok and Arabia at the First Battle of Harvest was the first indicator that the class was simply not up to direct combat with the Covenant. Further early battles such as the Second Battle of Harvest made this apparent, though some engagements like the Battle of Bliss in 2526 were more a result of the Covenant's superior numbers. Isolated examples, such as the Battle of Chi Ceti, where the UNSC Commonwealth was able to inflict damage to a Covenant vessel using MAC fire and nuclear weapons, showed that the Remembrance-class was not totally useless against the Covenant. Nonetheless, after the first five years of the war, UNSC High Command considered the issue important enough to schedule the class for its first refit.

This refit began in 2531, and upgraded several hundred vessels per year. The biggest change was the addition of twelve vertical launch missile launchers, which the vessel was designed for but not with as an optional future armament expansion. This allowed the Remembrance-class to carry a total of twenty four BSGM-14 Harpoon nuclear missiles equipped with conventional or MIRV warheads, giving a greater flexibility in its nuclear armament and supplementing its complement of Shiva-class missiles. Due to the UNSC's nuclear arsenal being almost depleted by 2531, Remembrance-class frigates were usually equipped with just six missiles, and only rarely any more than this. As well as this, the refit also expanded the magazine size of the vessel's forty missile pods from twenty to thirty ready missiles, increasing its overall capacity from 800 to 1,200 missiles. Finally, the class' targeting and navigation systems were upgraded to modernise its capabilities. The entire class had been refitted by 2537, with vessels under construction being produced with the new features.

By 2547, the UNSC's initial order had been completed, with a production run of 3,012 frigates. By this point, however, 349 had been destroyed by the Covenant before they were commissioned; and of the 2,663 completed vessels, 1,864 had been destroyed in action or irreparably damaged. With less than eight hundred vessels of the class in service, the UNSC ordered a second group of an additional two thousand vessels, with the expectation that many existing vessels would be destroyed in the future. It was anticipated that Group II vessels would quickly outnumber Group I ships as production replaced lost ships with the newer type. The class received its second overhaul as Group II ships were improved on and older vessels were upgraded to match. The refit included the addition of an advanced plasma refractive coating onto the Remembrance-class' hull, which was previously only available in small quantities and increased the ship's resistance to light plasma fire. The class also received twelve dual general purpose 4.1 inch Mark 22 naval gun turrets. These cannons were used primarily for improved point defence against starfighters, though also saw use in combat against light warships and ground targets. Finally, the class saw its complement of 20 quad-mounted 50mm mark VI naval gun turrets increased to thirty, and its electronic systems once against upgraded.

Frigates above Ariel

Resurgence and Redoubtable participating in Operation: FIRESIDE.

The Remembrance-class frigate saw action at the majority of engagements fought against the Covenant as a result of its large numbers. At the Battle of Orchid IV in 2539, seven frigates made up half of the UNSC's naval presence, which was ultimately responsible for the survival of 291,000 of Orchid IV's 400,000-strong population. The frigates Remembrance and UNSC Death's Head, along with the Marathon-class cruiser UNSC Absolution, had escorted the last 214 civilian transports evacuating the planet, ensuring the survival of 81 of them. Four frigates also numbered in Rear Admiral Palmer's fleet of ten vessels that launched a suicidal charge on the Covenant fleet, which enabled the civilian craft to attempt to flee. Engagements like this, where frigates proved their worth most often through their destruction, were increasingly common as the war progressed.

Remembrance-class frigates saw increasing service as front line combatants as the war dragged on, and the UNSC became increasingly desperate for vessels to field against the Covenant. The Battle of Bellerophon in 2541, Battle of Petrovya in 2542, and Battle of Orthiad in 2546 saw heavy use of frigates as combatant vessels due mainly to their large numbers; their relative frailty when faced with Covenant weaponry was of secondary importance to fielding the maximum number of vessels possible. The Battle of Miridem in 2544 exemplified the use of frigates as numerous vessels intended to take hits for other vessels if necessary; they and Hope-class destroyers repeatedly turned into oncoming plasma torpedoes aimed at larger warships, allowing the UNSC fleet to remain combat effective against the Covenant fleet for an abnormally long period of time. While six of the seven present frigates, including UNSC Journeyman and the lead ship of the class, UNSC Remembrance, were destroyed during the engagement, the overall outcome of the battle was a UNSC Pyrrhic victory, in part due to the part played by the Remembrance-class frigates. Similar events occurred at the Battle of Psi Serpentis in 2543, one of the UNSC's biggest victories during the war, where frigates made up 42 of Admiral Cole's 162-strong fleet.

The Siege of Victoria in 2546-2547 continued this trend of frigates being used on the front lines, despite their weaknesses. The battle saw small groups of frigates used to slip past Covenant vessels and bring supplies and fresh troops to the planet, then wage a kind of guerrilla warfare against Covenant vessels and ground targets in the atmosphere. This action led to the UNSC forces on the planet holding off repeated Covenant assaults until most of the planet's civilians had been evacuated. The use of frigates in this instance was also a result of their speed and small size, which gave them a better chance of reaching the planet intact. The Battle of Adrastos in 2548 again saw the use of frigates in large numbers against a Covenant fleet; despite the valiant fighting of these vessels and others in the fleet, the UNSC fleet was forced eventually to retreat severely depleted, leaving the Covenant to glass the world.

HaloReach - FrigateWreck

A destroyed Remembrance-class frigate above Reach.

The Remembrance-class frigate played an imperative role in the last years of the war. Frigates made up a large portion of the UNSC fleet that fought at the Battle of Ballast in late 2551, preventing the world from falling to the Covenant. UNSC Resurgence and Redoubtable were responsible for deploying ODST forces to Ariel's surface in January 2552, as part of Operation: FIRESIDE, which saved the planet from glassing. At the Battle of Fumirole in April that year, Remembrance-class frigates were part of the fleet that destroyed the small Covenant scouting force in orbit; later these vessels entered the planet's atmosphere and assisted the UNSC Army garrison in defeating the last of the alien forces. At Sigma Octanus IV, 30 of the UNSC's 40 present vessels were frigates, and were largely responsible for the Pyrrhic victory achieved there.

During the Fall of Reach in July/August 2552, frigates made up a large part of the Epsilon Eridani Fleet's 152 warships. Although eventually defeated, the fleet put up a fierce fight and scored a disproportionate amount of kills against Covenant ships. Later, frigates participated in other engagements across the planet, including UNSC Grafton and UNSC Saratoga at the Battle at Szurdok Ridge and UNSC Savannah's crucial role in Operation: UPPER CUT. Other vessels, such as UNSC Aegis Fate also played important parts, with the ship picking up survivors from defending orbital defence generators after she herself had survived the space battle; the Aegis Fate later fled safely to Earth, carrying with it the remnants of the 28th Shock Troops Battalion.

Frigates also played a crucial role in the climatic Battle of Earth, which effectively turned the tide of the war in favour of the UNSC. Large numbers of Remembrance-class vessels were present within the UNSC Home Fleet, which put up strong resistance against the Prophet of Regret's fleet but was virtually wiped out by reinforcements led by the Prophet of Truth. The frigate UNSC In Amber Clad pursued Regret's assault carrier, Solemn Penance into slipspace, arriving at Installation 05, where she and her crew witnessed the beginnings of the Great Schism, killed the Prophet of Regret and prevented the installation from being fired. After the return of SPARTAN-117, the UNSC launched a counterattack on Covenant operations in East Africa, which occupied the majority of their forces. The attack, which culminated in an assault on the Portal led by Admiral Hood with the frigates UNSC Aegis Fate, UNSC Forward Unto Dawn and UNSC Death's Head, resulted in surviving Covenant forces withdrawing through the Portal, effectively ending the Battle of Earth in the UNSC's favour.

Frigates scrap

Decommissioned frigates await scrapping in Mare Erythraeum, Mars.

Following the battle, the weary UNSC forces, along with their new allies the Covenant separatists, enacted Operation: BLIND FAITH, to pursue the Prophet of Truth to The Ark. The UNSC's expeditionary force consisted of the three frigates from Voi and their complements, which comprised a significant portion of the UNSC Home Fleet's active, undamaged vessels. These ships, along with the Fleet of Retribution, scored a decisive, final victory over both the Covenant and the Flood at the Ark, killing Truth, eradicating the Flood and stopping the Halo Array from being activated.

All frigates of the Group I production batch, built between 2512 and 2547, were hard worked during the war, with most surviving ships suffering repeated heavy damage. Surviving examples of the class had fought a long and consuming war and despite significant overhauls and repair of battle damage, were worn out by 2552 and were scrapped steadily after 2561. Group II vessels, which were commissioned from 2549 onwards, had been worked similarly hard during the war, but were better equipped and had endured far shorter service lives. As the UNSC was chronically short of vessels in the immediate post-war period, surviving Group II vessels were repaired and returned to active service at considerable cost, augmenting those frigates being newly built.

Remnant War

The Remnant War began immediately after the end of the Human-Covenant War, giving the UNSC and its Navy no respite from fighting. Although there was no formal declaration of war from any parties involved, it is generally accepted that the war began on March 3, 2553, the day the Human-Covenant War was officially ended. The Covenant Empire, now haphazardly disintegrating into smaller factions, was itself no longer a threat to the UNSC; however, in the unpredictable chaos of the Covenant's fall, all of its successor factions could be viewed as hostile to the Human race. The hundreds of smaller and dozens of larger independent Covenant factions were led by a vast spectrum of leaders and ideological, political or military objectives- most of these factions hostile to each other- and many remaining focused on destruction of the Human species. As a result, the end of the Human-Covenant War did not mark a reduction in the Remembrance-class frigate's prominent fighting role in the UNSC Navy.

1st naval armada

The bolstered UNSC Home Fleet moves to engage the True Covenant armada; a Remembrance-class frigate of the Stalwart-subclass in the foreground.

While the Sangheili had appealed to the UNSC for military assistance during the Palamok Uprising in March 2553, the reality of the UNSC's situation meant that they simply could not spare vessels for such an expedition. As a result, the frigate's first operation post-war was instead Operation: KEY HOLE, a joint military operation conducted by the newly formed Alliance of Sangheili Clans and the UNSC on April 14 and 15 2553. The initial purposes of the operation were to secure Installation 00 from Covenant remnant factions, to retrieve Forerunner technology and technological data, and to investigate the disappearance of SPARTAN-117 and the artificial intelligence, Cortana. The UNSC's element consisted of three Remembrance-class frigates, UNSC Aegis Fate. UNSC Resurgence and UNSC Death's Head, alongside two Hope-class destroyers, DD-339 and DD-340, two Vengeance-class destroyers [[UNSC Destiny's Child (DDG-544) |Destiny's Child]] and Selborne, and the Marathon-class cruiser UNSC Say My Name. These ships had been drawn from the UNSC Home Fleet, which had been bolstered with ships from other colonies since its mauling during the Battle of Earth. The ships of the newly formed Sangheili Defence Force, military arm of the Alliance of Sangheili Clans, were formed of the Fleet of Retribution, which had been renumerated since its involvement in Operation: BLIND FAITH, and had experience with the Ark and operating alongside Human ships. Command of the operation was jointly provided by leader of the ASC, Supreme Elder Rtas 'Vadum, and Admiral Terrence Hood. While the Operation achieved its aims, these were overshadowed by the occurrence of the TOUCAN BLUE event, which involved successful first contact with the Theran and Ve'nek species. These species, as well as the ASC, UNSC and now-liberated Yanme'e Conglomeration, would eventually be the founding members for the Unified Coalition of Governments in November 2555.

The class's first actual engagement of the Remnant War occurred little over three weeks later, during Operation: REAR GUARD, when a fleet of Covenant vessels attempted to fully subjugate Earth and gain access to the Ark. The attack was by forces under the command of Brute High Chieftain Thietus, military commander of the Prophet of Foresight's True Covenant faction, which was what was left behind after vast sections of the Covenant had fragmented away. ONI intelligence had given a few days warning of the attack, and as a result over two hundred Human and sixty Sangheili vessels, along with dozens of orbital defence platforms and newly deployed Bulwark defensive satellites, were prepared for the assault. Despite this however, the defenders were outnumbered by a fleet of over three hundred Covenant vessels, a high proportion of them of cruiser tonnage and above. As the battle commenced, the Remembrance-class frigates, which numbered eighty two of the Human defence fleet, were able to utilise Bulwark satellites to protect themselves from enemy fire while they themselves struck at the enemy, in a manner not unlike the use of refit stations at Sigma Octanus and Reach. Combined fire from the Sangheili Defence Force's energy projectors and the UNSC's orbital defence
RvB frigate FFG

The UNSC Mother of Invention (FFG-636) participates in Operation: LOOSE END.

platforms quickly inflicted heavy casualties on the True Covenant fleet, pinpointing and eliminating its strongest vessels. Despite the use of these and other tactics by the defenders, the True Covenant fleet quickly closed with and engaged them in orbit, at which distance the Human ships were at a disadvantage. Dozens of UNSC ships were destroyed or crippled in these 'knife fights', with several Sangheili ships themselves succumbing to fire after deliberately drawing the enemy's attack. The battle's tide was changed again however, when fifteen Ve'nek and seventeen Theran vessels emerged from the Portal at high speed, and headed directly for the fray in orbit. The ships, who had until then ignored the UNSC's increasingly desperate pleas for assistance, quickly decimated the Covenant's fleet, forcing their surviving ships to retreat haphazardly. Earth and the Portal were secure again, and the UNSC had secured new fighting allies in the Ve'nek and Therans, but this victory came at a cost; ninety two Human and twenty seven Sangheili vessels were destroyed or heavily damaged, with a loss of 177,310 lives. A total of forty five Remembrance-class frigates were destroyed.

Galactic War

Swarm War

Usage

The Remembrance-class frigate was introduced as a light multirole warship, able to counter a variety of threats and act in a range of roles. The class was specifically designed to act as a fast and well-armed patrol vessel, for policing UNSC space and offering rapid support to larger vessels. Introduced in the early 26th century, a period of increased Insurrectionist activity, the Remembrance-class' speed and ample weapons complement lent itself naturally to deterrence and combat with the type of small, lightly armed vessels fielded by insurrectionist groups. Later, the class' role evolved from armed patrol to fill a wide range of others, including escorting larger vessels and offering them close support in space and atmospheric combat, and transporting and deploying ground forces and aircraft. The Remembrance-class' flexibility in this sense gave it value beyond its worth, and was a chief reason for the vessel's ubiquity throughout UNSC territory.

After first contact, and the subsequent war, with the Covenant, the Remembrance-class was proved drastically inferior in both armament and defensive capabilities to even the weakest alien vessels. The class continued to be fielded by the UNSC for its relatively low cost, flexibility in the range of roles it could undertake, and its speed and agility; which gave it an enhanced ability to evade Covenant ship-to-ship fire compared to other ship classes.

Layout

UNSC Savannah over Reach

UNSC Savannah, a Paris-class frigate, over Reach in 2552.

At the time of its introduction, the Remembrance-class had an unusual and unconventional layout that differed drastically from 'traditional' monolithic UNSC ship designs, such as the Halcyon-class cruiser, Marathon-class cruiser and Heracles-class destroyer. This new but practical layout later spread to other small UNSC warship classifications designed in the latter half of the 26th century, such as the Vanguard- and Warrior-class destroyers and the Daring-class frigate. The heavily armoured bow of the frigate was split into two sections, the upper and lower prow; the upper housing the frigate's Magnetic Accelerator Cannon and the lower containing the nuclear missile launch tube. Both prows also featured numerous antennas for sensor and communication systems.

Further aft, two well armoured lateral 'arms' flanked the frigate's main hull. These arms held the vessel's complement of Mark XII 155mm naval guns; each arm held three on the top and the bottom; while these turrets could not retract into the hull to conserve internal space, the barrels could retract into the turret bodies, which were designed to reduce RADAR cross-section. The front of these arms also contained powerful maneuvering thrusters that gave the frigate extreme agility; each arm held one thuster facing forwards, two each facing up and down, one facing laterally outwards and two facing up and down at 45 degree angles respectively. Further aft, the outwards facing side of the arms contained six large armoured hangars each, inside which the frigate's squadron of space-capable fighters was held. These fighters would typically be either F-371 Halberd spatial superiority starfighters, or F-419C Sabre short range interceptors. Below each of these hangars was a smaller one that held the frigate's complement of unmanned drones, totalling twelve FQ-99B Darts. Inside the ship, the hangars contained refuelling, repair, munitions and maintenance systems needed to service the fighters. The armoured hangar doors could withstand considerable damage whilst remaining intact and were protected by localised shield generators, which retained atmosphere once the doors were opened. Artificial gravity in these sections could be deactivated for easier launch and recovery of fighter craft to these bays; this was necessary as floor hatches for drop launches were not present, as a result of the external naval gun turrets. At ten metres high and eighteen across, these hangars were too small to accommodate most of the UNSC's single ships, including the F/A-352B Longsword. The lateral arms of the frigate also contained six launch tubes for Harpoon missiles, which launched through armoured hatches behind the top mounted gun turrets. These tubes held one missile ready for firing and a spare internally for reloading.

The ship's dorsal surface accommodated a structure 104 metres in length which served several functions, primarily housing the frigate's powerful sensory, communication and targeting systems. The top of this structure housed the fifteen metre-across MASER dish for short range communication and, slightly aft of this, a seven metre-across radome which housed the ship's AESA RADAR. This heavily armoured section also housed the main observation deck, which acted as a mock bridge and was off limits during action stations alerts. Both sides of this section featured universal docking rings for docking and linking with other UNSC vessels, such as shuttles, other small craft and orbital stations.

Holotable

A large holotable stood in the centre of the CIC; here showing an SDV-class corvette, but capable of displaying any type of information.

The ship's actual command centre, the CIC or Combat Information Centre, was in fact located deep in the core of the vessel, directly below the dorsal sensor structure and protected by the two lateral arms. From here, the vessel was steered and combat action commands issued, as well as tactical and navigational operations monitored and directed. The CIC was a large, two-level complex with four automatic bulkhead exits, which were closed during action stations alerts. The CIC consisted of many stations arranged in a concentric layout around a central command area. Here there was a single primary battle holoprojector table, which showed in real time events unfolding on the battlefield, as well as detailed information on the vessels and objects shown (damage taken, crew, complement, standing orders and such). Alongside this were three secondary and numerous tertiary holodisplays. Several large, flat holographic displays were projected from the top of the peripheral stations. This gave the commander a clear view of all the stations around the bridge, allowing him to easily see survey a large quantity of information from his post.

A large, angled structure extended from the ventral side of the frigate, and contained facilities for housing, maintaining and actually deploying the ship's embarked Marine Shipboard Unit. The MSU comprised 770 personnel and 57 vehicles, all of which were accommodated in this section; the MSU's squadron of D-77 Pelicans and flight of D-96 Ospreys was drop-launched from the very underside of this section, alongside the HEV tubes for launching the frigate's complement of 40 Orbital Drop Shock Troopers. The ship possessed twelve separate tubes which magnetically held four SOEIVs, for a total of forty eight pods. The frigate's combat support craft, which could be either a B-221 Scythe bomber, P-221 Ranger patrol craft, or E-221 Warden early warning and control craft, was also stored in this section, as well as its squadron of three RQ-117 Clarion spatial reconnaissance drones, which launched through a forward-facing hangar.

Further aft, two bulky engine nacelles spread from the main hull on wide struts; these were reinforced by structural ribs which strengthened the design. These nacelles housed a number of thrusters that propelled the frigate, with a total of eight separate thrusters. Providing primary movement from each nacelle was a large and a smaller thruster, which provided the craft's forward thrust. These were supplemented by two smaller maneuvering thrusters, which were used in conjunction with the main engines. The lateral faces of the nacelles were covered in a thick layer of armour plate, which protected the vulnerable engine assembly from damage. Additional maneuvering thrusters were located on the outside of this armour, providing lateral thrust for maneuvering.

Armament

The Remembrance-class frigate benefited from a varied armament consisting of heavy and secondary weapon systems, which gave the vessel a large scope in offensive and defensive capabilities. Although holding a small armament in comparison to larger vessels, the Remembrance-class frigate's unique balance of weaponry gave it the maximum possible capability when faced with numerous types of enemy craft. Inkeeping with its guided missile frigate designation, the Remembrance-class was equipped with a range of missile armaments.

In its last configuration, the Remembrance-class frigate's armament consisted of the following:

800px-Mac

UNSC Forward Unto Dawn fires her Mark 2 MAC/L during the Battle of Voi.

The Remembrance-class frigate's primary and most powerful armament was one Mark II Light Magnetic Accelerator Cannon, which took up most of the ship's upper prow and ran two thirds of the ship's overall length. The Mark II accelerated a 600-ton solid metal projectile to speeds exceeding 30,000 metres per second, giving it superb accuracy and terminal ballistic characteristics over extreme ranges. The impact energy alone from the slug travelling at such a velocity equated to 64 kilotons of TNT, or 267.7 terajoules of released energy. A single slug was able to severely damage or completely destroy most unshielded Covenant vessels, while multiple strikes were needed to defeat present shielding. In microgravity environments the slug maintained close to its muzzle velocity for as long as it travelled uninterfered with by the force of gravity; this, coupled with its high initial velocity, meant that the MAC could strike at targets quickly, accurately and over long ranges. The Mark II MAC was the Remembrance-class frigate's most effective armament when combating enemy warships, with the highest effective range and damage yield. The amount of energy needed to charge the weapon's magnetic coils was significantly draining on the reserves of such a small vessel. The weapon could fire two slugs on a full charge, then needed to be charged for 45 seconds before it could be discharged again at full power; this amount of time with an inoperable main weapon often proved fatal when in combat scenarios. The Mark II could be fired on a partial charge, which decreased the amount of time the MAC was offline, though this concurrently reduced the velocity of the projectile, which reduced range, accuracy and terminal effects.

Following the class' 2561 refit, which equipped the class with twin linked Mark XVI TEMPEST advanced fusion reactors, Covenant-derived reactors hundreds of times more powerful than conventional human designs, the Remembrance-class could fire its main cannon with next to no charge time between consecutive shots. The Mark II MAC was also replaced with a more modern, more efficient Mark III Light Magnetic Accelerator Cannon, which was designed specifically for use with new generation UNSC reactors. As a result of the modernised MAC and vastly improved power source, the MAC could fire far more shots on a single charge and then charge up again in a fraction of the time previously possible. The slug now travelled at speeds exceeding half the speed of light (149,896,229 metres per second), significantly faster than war-era MACs and was achieved through the use of reactors that were hundreds of times more powerful, as well as a larger number of capacitors and power recyclers which captured the residual energy from the capacitors after discharge. The impact energy alone from the slug travelling at such a velocity equated to 1.61 teratons of TNT, or 6,740,663.84 petajoules of released energy; although this would vary slightly depending on the type of slug. This dramatic increase in rate of fire and firepower made even the smallest UNSC vessels a serious threat to Covenant ships of similar and higher tonnage. This also drastically increased the lethality of the vessel by eliminating the time it would be without its main armament. The vessel could carry up to sixty slugs in a large internal magazine.

This energy was sufficient to completely destroy most Covenant vessels of cruiser tonnage and below with just two hits; the first depleting shielding and the second hitting and disintegrating the ship itself. In microgravity environments the slug maintained close to its muzzle velocity for as long as it travelled uninterfered with by the force of gravity; this, coupled with its high initial velocity, meant that the MAC could strike at targets quickly, accurately and over long ranges. As a result of the new, Covenant technology-derived reactors used by the UNSC, the MAC could fire far more shots on a single charge and then charge up again in a fraction of the time previously possible. This dramatic increase in rate of fire, coupled with the weapon's increased firepower, made even the smallest UNSC vessels a serious threat to Covenant ships of similar and higher tonnage.

Several types of slug were available to the Mark 3 MAC, providing a range of function and effects. The slugs' official designations include the 'Kinetic Penetrator' prefix to denote their use in MAC systems, distinguishing them from small arms ammunition.

  • Kinetic Penetrator, Tungsten: This slug was a simple, single-compound slug composed of superhard Tungsten Carbide. This material made its effects simple in that they were limited to penetrative power, although in this area the slug was exceptionally capable. The KPT slug was often used to supplement the more capable but more expensive KCP slug.
  • Kinetic Penetrator, Ceramic: The most commonly used slug, in addition to KPT, was a Kinetic Composite Penetrator slug, or KCP. The KCP slug was formed of a ceramic and CVT/Titanium alloy, metal/ceramic metal matrix composite, in alternating, concentric layers. This had superior penetrating properties than either ceramic or metal alone, and was comparable in density to titanium yet retaining a hardness exceeding that of tungsten. It was commonly used in conjunction with the cheaper KPT slug.
  • Kinetic Penetrator, Reactive: The KPR slug was formed of depleted Uranium, or DU, which had penetrating qualities close to those of the KPC slug, yet was incendiary. This meant that the slug ignited on contact with the target and entered it with significantly increased secondary effects.
  • Kinetic Penetrator, Fragmentation: The KPF slug was composed of a 'TC3' alloy, made up of tungsten, cerium and copper carbide, which had a similar density to DU, without radiological effects, though retaining an incendiary function. The slug would ignite on contact with the target and carry into it incendary material, which increased secondary effects considerably, making it more useful for larger targets that could withstand multiple strikes. The slug was constructed to decelerate considerably and fragment after impacting the target, spreading large fragments of incendiary metal scything through the ship's interior.
  • Kinetic Penetrator, Multiple: The KPM slug was in actual fact a 'bundle' of three smaller slugs fired at the same time. These slugs then travelled to the target parallel to each other but with space between them, creating three smaller impacts rather than one larger one, and focusing kinetic damage in the area between them, causing much larger overpressure damage that would travel completely through the target, even if the slugs did not. This made the KPM slug more useful for smaller and weaker targets.
Archer pods

Two Archer pods on Redoubtable's port side.

The Remembrance-class frigate's secondary armament was its complement of forty five-tube missile pods, which were recessed into the vessel's hull. Initially, individual pods shared a missile magazine of twenty missiles, giving each tube four missiles ready to fire; the ship carried a total of 800 missiles ready for launch. The class' 2531 refit increased each magazine size to thirty, raising the number of missiles it could carry to 1200. Although the pods could accept a wide range of compatible missiles, by far the most commonly utilised was the RSGM-16 Mark II Archer missile, a dual purpose anti-warship and anti-starfighter missile. Designed for use against Insurrectionist vessels, the Archer was ineffective against Covenant vessels unless in large numbers, with generally half of all launched missiles being intercepted by Covenant close-in weapon systems and the other half impacting on the shielding, against which they were largely ineffectual. Despite these weaknesses, the Archer was startlingly effective against Covenant vessel's exposed hulls, with relatively few being needed to severely damage a vessel's superstructure. As a result of this, Archer missiles were often employed after MAC strikes had lowered a target's shielding, and then launched en-masse, partially overcoming the problems of protective shielding and defensive weapon systems. Archer missiles gave the Remembrance-class a more versatile response to enemy vessels than its Magnetic Accelerator Cannon, which was lethal in the extreme; employing Archers, a captain could aim to disable or damage insurrectionist vessels rather than destroying them outright. Unlike the ship's main weapon, Archer missiles could also be utilised against hostile single ships with mixed success; this was essential during the early stages of the Human-Covenant War, where UNSC close-in shipboard weapons were for the most part ineffective against Covenant starfighters. The Remembrance-class frigate's 2561 refit upgraded the forty missile pods to accept more modern missile types, allowing them to be re-equipped the RSGM-16 Mark IV Archer improved version, vastly augmenting its effectiveness.

The Remembrance-class frigate was also equipped with a complement of up to six RSM-19 Shiva nuclear missiles. These measured 60.6 metres in length and 10.1 metres in diameter, and were fired from a launch tube mounted in the vessel's smaller lower prow. Prior to the class' 2561 refit, vessels could hold a maximum of three Shiva missiles, but this was increased to six as part of the refit. Shivas were large, ultra high yield missiles that could be deployed against both large scale ground targets and hostile spacefaring vessels, and had a variable yield of between 30 and 350 megatons. The missile could be fitted with a single large warhead or alternatively, a MIRV warhead, equipping the missile with multiple warheads that could be independently targeted. This partially negated the effect of Covenant point defence fire and increased the likelihood that part of the payload would reach the target. The Shiva could be fitted with up to eight independently targetable warheads with a maximum individual yield of 30 megatons (using the VE-3 warhead), giving a maximum overall yield in MIRV configuration of 240 megatons. Higher overall yields were possible using single large warheads, which increased individual power but decreased the likelihood of striking the target. One Shiva missile potentially had the power to completely disable a Covenant ship's shields if it scored a direct hit against its shields or a close range detonation. Missiles detonating inside active shields had the power to completely destroy Covenant vessels as their power was contained within the shields and focused by several times.

Missiles for Athena32

Harpoon launch tubes of a Remembrance-class frigate.

Augmenting the frigate's anti-ship armament was its complement of twenty four BSGM-14 Harpoon nuclear missiles. These were carried in six vertical launch tubes on either side of the command superstructure, and were installed as part of the class' refit in 2531. These missiles could be fitted with a single large warhead or alternatively, a MIRV warhead, which equipped the missile with multiple warheads that could be independently targeted. This increase in volume of fire partially negated the effect of Covenant point defence fire and increased the likelihood that part of the payload would reach the target. The Harpoon missile could be fitted with up to twelve independently targetable warheads with a maximum individual yield of five megatons, giving a maximum overall yield in MIRV configuration of 60 megatons. Higher overall yields of up to 120 megatons were possible using single large warheads, which increased individual power but decreased the likelihood of striking the target. All twenty four Harpoons in MIRV configuration gave a total of 288 individual warheads and a combined yield of 1440 megatons, giving superior volume of fire compared to RSM-19 Shivas and supplementing them with a more flexible, lighter nuclear option. The Remembrance-class frigate carried twelve missiles ready for firing at a moment's notice in the twelve tubes; each tube was equipped with a second Harpoon ready for loading once the first had been launched. This meant that the ship could launch half its Harpoon payload at once, though would then need to reload all twelve tubes, which took approximately sixteen seconds. The Harpoon could be equipped with a conventional high explosive or shaped warhead if required, usually for striking ground-based targets. Its designation, BSGM, denoted that its primary launching platform was a variable; the Harpoon was commonly fired from both warship- and ground-based silos. In addition, it was capable of striking both spatial and ground-based targets.

Due to the UNSC's nuclear arsenal being almost depleted by 2531, Remembrance-class frigates were initially usually equipped with a maximum of six missiles for standard deployments; it was rare that a vessel would be issued more than this apart from those more likely to see combat at short notice, such as in rapid response fleets. The Harpoon missile went through several iterations during its use. The BSGM-14 Harpoon Mark 6 was used from 2550 onwards and made use of several features to increase its effectiveness. Stealth measures included a shape designed to reduce RADAR cross section, RADAR absorbant materials, and a low detectability hybrid rocket engine, which combined with minimal radio and thermal emissions to avoid detection until the last seconds before impact. As well as this, the Harpoon carried an independent RADAR, ultraviolet, infrared and optical guidance package in case contact between the controlling vessel and the missile was broken. Finally, the missile was equipped with sophisticated systems to avoid and defeat countermeasures deployed against it.

Mark XXI naval gun

A battery of Mark 12 guns on the Remembrance-class frigate UNSC Revenge.

Twenty four 4.1 inch Mark 22 naval guns acted as the Remembrance-class frigate's general purpose light armament, and were mounted in twelve armoured, fast tracking dual turrets. These cannons were used primarily for point defence against starfighters and incoming ordnance, their relatively large calibre sufficient to overwhelm most Covenant single ships, though they also saw use in combat against light warships and ground targets. The class' M970s in this way acted as a multirole light armament which could effectively be turned on any target, providing each vessel an increased degree of flexibility in combat. The vessel's complement of twelve turrets could function in both offensive and defensive roles, sometimes simultaneously, directly assaulting targets or laying down supporting fire to assist allied vessels, or projecting a defensive 'screen' of anti aircraft fire using advanced airburst munitions or other exotic types. These lightweight, though heavily armoured turrets had an elevation of 165 degrees from horizontal, and could rotate fully in under six seconds.

Following the class' 2561 refit, these turrets were replaced with twelve dual Mark XII 155mm naval guns. The Mark XII naval gun (officially called the 6.1 inch Mark 12 naval gun) was a UNSC naval gun system designed for general purpose fire support duties, mounted in armoured, fast tracking dual turrets, and fitted to UNSC vessels of frigate size and above, replacing the 4.1 inch/105mm Mark 22 naval gun. The Mark XII was a versatile weapon providing a multi-role fire ability, capable of fire-support, anti-surface, anti-ship and anti-air fire missions. When used in an anti-air role, the weapon's unparalleled accuracy and deadly firpower per shot compensated for its low rate of fire compared to dedicated close-in weapon systems; this enabled it to engage single ships with similar success to them while also taking on stronger targets and a in wider range of roles. In an anti-ship role, the naval gun was far more powerful than all the UNSC's antiship weapons short of large MACs and nuclear weapons, giving it a strong light anti-ship role. The gun could be directed to fire at vulnerable external targets such as shield generators and weapons, overwhelming shields with powerful localised fire and disabling enemy systems even before the main shields were disabled. The guns could easily fire through the openings in shields when targeting active Covenant weapons, destroying point defence lasers, plasma torpedo launchers and even large energy projectors by firing through gaps in the shield. The Mark XII could also function in an anti-surface role, engaging ground targets at extreme range with superior firepower and accuracy.

The design for the Mark XII was based on the 5.9 inch Mark 2488 naval gun, though thoroughly updated and modernised. The UNSC's vastly improved twin linked Mark XVI TEMPEST fusion reactors, engineered with Sangheili, Ve'nek, Theran and Huragok assistance, meant that the Mark XII could achieve a cyclic rate of fire of 50 slugs a minute.

The frigate's final tier of weaponry was its thirty quad-mounted 50mm mark VI naval gun turrets. These turrets provided point defence against incoming starfighters, missiles and other ordnance, destroying them with accuracy and high volume of fire. The weapon consisted of four Mark VI autocannon, which was a navalised version of the M9019 autocannon with modified feed systems and longer barrels. These were mounted onto a fast tracking armoured turret, which could effectively engage targets at up to ten kilometres. Although moderately effective at destroying enemy single ships, the turrets lacked the firepower to deal significant damage to Covenant warships. The Remembrance-class frigate's complement of Mark VI turrets was increased from twenty to thirty as part of a class refit, in an attempt to improve performance against Banshee- and Seraph-class starfighters.

Following the frigate's 2561 refit, its Mark VI turrets were replaced with thirty more modern quad M502 50mm railgun turrets. These guns boasted vastly increased rate of fire and damage characteristics than those they replaced, being able to engage starfighters and incoming ordnance at ranges of up to a hundred kilometres. These large calibre railguns had a rate of fire of five thousand rounds per minute and accelerated solid projectiles to twenty thousand metres per second (20km/s), with extremely damaging effects. The railgun's high muzzle velocity meant that they were accurate enough could hit a five metre target at a distance of eight hundred kilometres, while dealing a significant amount of kinetic energy to the target. As well as being able to act as point defence weapons, the railguns' increased range and firepower meant that they could also be used in an offensive capacity against ground targets, starfighters and even some light warships.

Armour

MACstrike

UNSC Aegis Fate and Forward Unto Dawn after their MAC strike on the Keyship. Theran and Ve'nek technology later equipped the Remembrance-class with the same type of armour technology as the Keyship, albeit vastly less efficient.

Prior to the its 2561 refit, the Remembrance-class frigate's armour remained relatively simple and for the most part ineffective against Covenant energy based weapons. The armour consisted of an external coating which both reduced RADAR cross-section and dispersed some of the energy from directed energy weapons. This layer, added during the 2547 refit, was effective at improving resistance to lighter plasma fire such as the plasma cannons of starfighters; however, against Covenant antiship weaponry such as plasma torpedoes and energy projectors, the coating had virtually no mitigating effect. The coating had been pioneered during development of the MJOLNIR armour system, and advances in production had meant that smaller vessels such as the frigate could be outfitted with it.

The frigate's second layer of armour was twenty centimetres of ceramic armour tiling. These tiles were primarily designed to defeat kinetic weapons and so were largely ineffective against energy weapon fire. Below this was a sixty centimetre layer of Titanium-A, which was capable of withstanding moderate amounts of light energy weapon fire, but would ultimately melt under any form of concentrated fire. Heavier weapons were able to inflict such extreme damage that the armour would be completely melted away in a single impact; for example, a single large plasma torpedo was often sufficient to completely destroy a Remembrance-class frigate.

Below these plates was a non-protective layer of shock-absorbing plates. These were designed to reduce the transfer of kinetic energy from weapon fire into the ship itself. As with most of the ship's armour, this was designed for protection against kinetic energy attacks, and was of extremely limited use against plasma fire.

The class's 2561 refit attempted to rectify the serious shortcomings of the frigate's armour when faced with plasma-based and other energy weaponry. For a frigate, the Remembrance-class was comparatively well armoured, featuring multiple layers of resistant yet lightweight materials that gave it increased resilience to both directed energy and conventional weapons. This armour made use of ACE technology pioneered by The Royal Allegiance and the Ve'nek Dominion, technology that was shared with the UNSC. The class's armour arranged in modular plates, allowing for damaged sections to be removed and replaced, additional armour to be added or base armour removed to reduce weight. Beneath this modular layer was non-removable armour integrated directly into the hull, known as the monolithic armour plate. The total thickness of the Remembrance-class frigate's modular and fixed armour and hull was eighty centimetres.

The outer layer of the armour was coated in RADAR absorbant material, which rendered the vessel virtually undetectable on RADAR. This material also reduced UV reflections and distorted LADAR and laser rangefinders, affecting the targeting systems of enemy craft. Beneath this, the outer layers of the Remembrance-class's armour were focused more on withstanding plasma attacks, with lower layers offering dual anti-plasma and anti-ballistic protection. The outer layer of the armour was an energy-ablative superconductive layer composed of variable property energy-reactive regenerative nanomaterials. This nanomaterial absorbed most of the energy from plasma assaults and used it to increase its own strength, its properties changing according to the amount of energy it received. This technology was an evolved form of the plasma-refractive coating used on MJOLNIR Powered Assault Armour, though benefiting from advanced Tier One materials to turn incoming energy attacks into a defensive ability. As a result the frigate was able to survive a direct hits from comparatively heavy plasma weapons, such as plasma torpedoes, and remain operational. The technology for the vessel's regenerative armour layer was chiefly provided by The Royal Allegiance and the Ve'nek Dominion, who had reverse-engineered this technology from Forerunner warships, known as 'energy regenerative armour' or ERA. Although this armour was in actual fact far more resilient than comparable Covenant vessels, it was nowhere near as effective in terms of regeneration as Theran and Ve'nek vessels. This was because the armour required colossal amounts of power to operate at maximum theoretical capabilty, the kind of power that only Tier One zero-point energy' generators could produce; not even the advanced MAELSTROM and TEMPEST fusion reactors of the UNSC could near the power outputs of such generators.

Underneath this somewhat unconventional armour was more traditional alloy/composite armour, which provided excellent protection against both ballistic and plasma weaponry. This protection used both modular and fixed armour to provide light weight of transport, while still offering full protection from attack. It was also considerably more resistant to plasma attacks than previous composite armours. The outer layer of the composite modular armour assisted in holding the outer armour together, and allowed some slight flexibility yet superior density to engage various threats. Plasma-resistant resin impregnated carbon nanofibre coated the composite armour's outer surface to allow the best protection and structural strength. Below this outer layer was the primary defence against kinetic and plasma attack, a single-piece poured ceramic DCP (displacive compensation of porosity) plate. This was a metal/ceramic metal matrix composite which had superior protective properties than either ceramic or metal armour alone.

After monolithic forming, the ceramic plate was sandwiched between two plates of alloy composed of CVT (Chromium Vanadium Tungsten) and Titanium. This alloy had superior resistance properties to Titanium whilst remaining almost as lightweight. The whole assembly then underwent a hybrid DCP/prestressing method in which the preformed, porous ceramic material and metal plates were soaked in a bath of molten Titanium. As the metal cooled the plate composite compressed, increasing both the density and compressibility of the composite dramatically, improving its strength, ductility and ballistic performance. The resulting compound could be molded into complex shapes and offered improved protection at significantly lower weight. The Remembrance-class frigate's armour featured four triple layers of alloy/ceramic plate, which was backed by a layer of ultra heat resistant silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite.

Below the outer plates was a layer of overlapping ceramic 'chevrons'. These chevrons forced any physical or plasma round that was able to penetrate the outer plates to then penetrate the chevrons at a much higher oblique angle than the outer plate. This increased the armour's effectiveness not only by changing the penetrator's vector, but by increasing the thickness it had to penetrate. These chevrons were suspended in an plasma-resistant elasticised rubber-like polymer that reduced the shock to the overall plate and transferred much of the impact energy outwards, reducing the stresses on the impact plates. it was also capable of reflecting or absorbing much of the damage caused by directed energy weapons. This material also helped break up penetrating HEAT jets and KE penetrators by causing the chevrons to move around under the force of impact and degrading its overall performance.

Backing these chevrons was a fifth layer of composite alloy/ceramic plate, forcing the plasma or penetrator to again punch its way through at a different vector, forcing the round to fold or break up before it could defeat the final plate. The whole composite was then sealed in plasma-resistant resin-impregnated carbon nanofibre to absorb any remaining spall or plasma splash and attached to the base armour of the Remembrance-class frigate's hull in sections for easy replacement.

The monolithic armour plate for the frigate was produced using a process in which sets of inexpensive, thermodynamically compatible ceramic powders (Boron Carbide (B4C) and Titanium Carbide (TiC)) were blended with thermoplastic polymer binders and then co-extruded to form a fibre. This fibre composite was first braided then woven into the shape of the desired component. The fabricated component was then stacked and pyrolysed to remove the polymer binder, and hot-pressed to obtain the base preformed ceramic material for final processing.

The preformed ceramic matrix was still rather porous, and though extremely hard and ductile, was still rather fragile compared to a composite plate. The DCP process avoided extensive shrinkage in the processing of dense ceramic parts, worked at lower temperatures than conventional methods, did not require the use of high pressures and eliminated the need for post-process ceramic machining. The preform was soaked in a bath of CVT/Titanium alloy. The preform absorbed the liquid metal like a sponge; the liquid metal then reacted with the ceramic powder to form a new ceramic compound that filled in pore spaces. The result was a part with a larger internal solid volume, but the exact same external shape and dimensions as the original preform. The DCP method required reaction temperatures of only 1,300C, compared to the 2,000C required for traditional methods, to form very high melting point, covalently-bonded ceramics. Because the final part maintained the shape of the original porous ceramic, post-process reshaping was eliminated. This translated to cost savings for manufacturers, allowing for more armour to be produced. The finished composite was strong and ductile enough to resist severe impact stress, while providing excellent anti thermal, kinetic and plasma properties and above all remaining light weight.

Shielding

Engines and Powerplant

Frigate thrusters

The reactor exhaust thrusters of a Remembrance-class frigate: inactive (l), light burn, and full power (r).

Complement

The Remembrance-class frigate held a modest complement as a result of its small size, but one that was varied and versatile, comprising starcraft, aircraft, infantry and vehicles. While small, it allowed the Remembrance-class frigate to defend itself in combat both from attacking craft and from boarders, and to mount its own attacks including boarding action and deployment of ground forces. The Remembrance-class frigate's Navy-operated onboard complement consisted of the following:

Sabre AAO2

An F-419C Sabre deployed in low orbit.

Providing the frigate's primary force projection was its naval fighter squadron, made up of twelve UNSC Navy-operated starfighters. These could either be F-419C Sabre short range interceptors or F-371 Halberd spatial superiority starfighters. The Sabre was a short range interceptor class focusing on extreme speed, agility and performance purely against hostile single ships, sacrificing range, endurance and stored munitions in the process. The Halberd was a spatial superiority starfighter, designed as an high performance fighter with exceptional range, weapory, agility, speed and protection. Although less capable overall, Sabre squadrons were more common than Halberd squadrons as a result of the latter's high cost. Both of these craft were used by the frigate due to their relatively small size, which enabled them to be deployed through the vessel's twelve lateral hanger bays; larger craft such as the F/A-352B Longsword strike fighter were not capable of being carried by the Remembrance-class.

Both the Halberd and the Sabre provided excellent short range support to the frigate. When deployed in battle, the twelve fighters could defend the ship from starfighter attack, providing an additional layer of defence to the frigate's existing weapon systems; alternatively, they could assist the frigate in actively attacking hostile targets. While exceptional in combat against enemy single ships, neither the Halberd nor the Sabre had any kind of anti-ship capability, leaving this role to the frigate's generous ship-to-ship armament.

The Remembrance-class frigate also carried a single Navy-operated support craft, either an B-221 Scythe, E-221 Warden or P-221 Ranger, which was held in the ventral superstructure. These craft, all variants of the same design, provided support to the frigate and its fighter squadron. The B-221 Scythe had the ability to support the frigate in combat against ships in spatial combat, and was also invaluable in supporting the frigate's Marine Support Unit when it was deployed on the ground. The E-221 Warden early warning and control craft was used to provide surveillance, command, control, communications and other electronic support functions; while the P-221 Ranger spatial patrol craft specialised in long range patrol, reconnaissance, electrical intelligence and anti-ship/anti-prowler warfare armed with powerful sensory equipment and a miniaturised slipspace drive. These craft provided unique and invaluable support to the frigate and its complement of fighters and troops. The type of support craft the Remembrance-class frigate would carry depended on its specific mission. The B-221, on which both of these craft were based, was so large that only one could be stored in the ventral bay of the frigate without displacing other embarked units.

The frigate was also equipped with a reconnaissance drone squadron of three RQ-117 Clarion drones. These could be used for reconnaissance of areas or targets, and also as decoy targets themselves. The drones were held in a forward-facing launch bay located in the ship's ventral superstructure. As well as this, the frigate carried twelve FQ-99B Dart unmanned fighters, which were very small, agile short range craft used in combat to support the frigate, its complement of manned fighters, and when deployed, its ground forces. The Dart was controlled by an autonomous CPU though could also be remotely operated by the ship's AI.

The Remembrance-class frigate's embarked force was its Marine Shipboard Unit, which was essentially a Marine Expeditionary Unit though on a much smaller scale, and comprised the frigate's onboard defence force as well as its deployable ground force. The MSU was made up of a Ground Combat Element, an Air Combat Element and a joint Command/Logistics Element, and overall consisted of 770 personnel and 57 vehicles. The MSU was the smallest self-sufficient unit deployable by the Marine Corps, comprising its own ground and air combat elements, as well as combat support including logistics, engineers and other support personnel. Embarking an MSU was particularly challenging on a small warship such as the Remembrance-class frigate. Although it was possible, for practical purposes the frigate would embark essential portions of the MSU, such as its Pelican squadron and infantry, while the rest of the MSU would be embarked onboard the Strike Force's planetary assault ships. The frigate could then carry its full complement of Marines only when it was necessary, for example in preparation for a planned amphibious operation. When not supporting the additional logistical and physical presence of a full MSU, a Remembrance-class frigate could instead embark a B-221 Scythe or its patrol or AWACS variants.

This unit comprised the frigate's onboard defence force as well as its deployable ground force. The MSU was made up of a Ground Combat Element, an Air Combat Element and a joint Command/Logistics Element. The MSU overall consisted of 770 personnel and 57 vehicles.

The Ground Combat Element totalled roughly 450 personnel, and allowed the frigate to deploy a small yet potent force of infantry, light and heavy vehicles. The GCE was made up of the following:

  • 1 Marine rifle company (200 men)
  • 1 tank platoon (4 M6A1 Raiders)
  • 1 mechanised infantry platoon (70 men, 8 M32 Warriors)
  • 1 combat engineer platoon (50 men)
  • 1 light reconnaissance platoon (15 M12 Warthogs)
  • 1 reconnaissance platoon (50 men)
  • 2 ODST platoons (40 men, 48 SOEIVs)

The Air Combat Element consisted of a range of aircraft, including trans-orbital dropships that could ferry troops to planetary combat and offer fire support, and light and heavy VTOL aircraft types. This allowed the Remembrance-class frigate to deploy a small but powerful contingent of aerial vehicles, capable of supporting the Ground Combat Element and operating alongside it in both offensive and defensive missions. The ACE totalled 70 crew and maintenance personnel and twenty two aircraft, and was made up of the following:

The Command/Logistics Element, or C/LE, was the smallest of the three elements and was responsible for overall command of the MSU, as well as logistical tasks. In addition, it contained small units for electronic warfare, intelligence, medical and explosive ordnance disposal tasks. The C/LE was comprised of a total of 250 personnel and 8 logistical vehicles.

Subclasses

Due to the Remembrance-class's large numbers and range of abilities, a number of subclasses and variants saw service during the Human-Covenant War. These subclasses attempted to improve on the class' strength in a specific role, reducing its overall versatility but optimising it for a specific task. Only a limited number of these vessels were produced with the vast majority of individual frigates in the UNSC Navy remaining as unmodified Remembrance-class frigates. Surviving variant vessels were retired from 2556 onwards.

  • Stalwart-class light frigate:
UNSC Aegis Fate

UNSC Aegis Fate, one of the most famous surviving examples of the class.

The Stalwart-class light frigate was an abortive subclass of the Remembrance-class frigate specifically designed to optimise fighting ability in atmopsheric conditions. To facilitate this it featured a redesigned external structure to improve thruster performance and aerodynamic properties, and a more modern antigravity generator, which enabled it to remain aloft for a longer period of time. Only sixteen Stalwart-class vessels were produced, which included the UNSC Stalwart Dawn and UNSC In Amber Clad.

  • Charon-class light frigate:
The Charon-class light frigate was a unofficial subclass of 126 vessels modified for light planetary defence roles primarily in the inner colonies. The vessels of the class were in fact heavily damaged Remembrance-class vessels which were extensively modified, the most obvious result of this being a far larger ventral superstructure beneath the engines, which enabled the class to both engage in spatial combat and deploy and support ground troops.
Vladivostok-class Frigate

The Paris-class heavy frigate

Due to this more dual-role nature as well as their presence above inner colony worlds, a number of Charon-class light frigates played imperative roles in Humanity's eventual defeat of the Covenant, including the UNSC Aegis Fate, UNSC Death's Head and UNSC Forward Unto Dawn.
  • Paris-class heavy frigate:

The Paris-class heavy frigate was a class of light combat vessels adapted from the Remembrance-class frigate. The Paris-class featured armour twenty centimetres thicker than the Remembrance-class, along with an increased number of point defence guns, a larger store of Archer missiles, and an updated reactor that charged the MAC seven percent faster. These features improved the combat abilities of the class, giving it increased survivability and firepower when facing Covenant vessels in spatial combat. The class was used exclusively for ship-to-ship combat with Covenant vessels, and a limited secondary role providing close air support to ground troops. The class reused the vacant hull numbers of several frigates since destroyed by the Covenant, accounting for the discrepancies with its hull numbers.

  • Hope-class destroyer:
Hope-class Destroyer

the skeletal silhouette of the Hope-class destroyer.

The Hope-class destroyer was a class of destroyers initially developed from the Remembrance-class frigate, however being markedly different both in design and role. Based on the spaceframe of the Remembrance-class frigate, stripped down and radically altered both externally and internally, the Hope-class was a semi-autonomous, semi-disposable ship designed to take the perceived expendability of the Remembrance-class frigate further. Stripped down to the bare minimum needed to maintain a viable mobile weapons platform, the Hope-class removed superfluous armaments, single ship complements, ability to maintaining a crew and even armour plating to increase its expendability, essentially allowing more MACs to be fielded simultaneously against the Covenant. Over one hundred examples of the class were produced between introduction in 2543 and when production ceased in 2552, with all but two, DD-339 and DD-340, being lost to enemy action.

Refits

The Remembrance-class frigate was subject to a large number of refits during its service life. Initially these refits were simply designed to marginally increase the poor performance of the class against Covenant warships, but in later decades as UNSC technology advanced, these refits enabled the class to remain on or above par with other warships of similar tonnage by significantly augmenting its capabilities. This section outlines the changes made to the class by each refit.

2531

The 2531 refit was intended to boost the poor performance of the class against Covenant warships.

  • Addition of 12 vertical launchers for BSGM-14 Harpoon nuclear missiles
  • Archer missile complement increased from 800 to 1200
  • Replacement of targeting and navigation equipment with fully modernised systems

2547

The 2547 refit was designed to increase the class' overall performance in combat including both Covenant warships and single ships.

2561

Frigate-countermeasures

UNSC Resurgence deploys Mark 4 decoys during a training exercise in 2563

The Remembrance-class frigate's 2561 refit was the most drastic and comprehensive in the class' history, and was in actual fact a complete 'reconstruction' of the vessels rather than a simple refit. These required several years to complete for each vessel and cost as much in some cases as an entirely new small warship, giving the navy virtually new warships, replacing internal machinery and significantly changing the vessels' capabilities. This refit was an application of knowledge the UNSC had acquired from the Covenant Separatists' Sangheili and Huragok, as well as the Therans and Ve'nek, over the previous decade. Although the UNSC did not have the resources to create such an advanced warship until many years after the Human-Covenant War, the refit enabled the class to, for the first time, take on Covenant vessels on an equal footing. The extensive modifications required each vessel to spend approximately two years in drydock.

2582

The class's 2582 refit was expected to be the class's last before its retirement in 2620, and was intended to modernise its capabilities to allow its continuing service for a further three decades.

  • Expanded and updated countermeasure equipment
  • Upgrade of electronic and sensor equipment

2633

While the class was due for final retirement in 2620-21, ten years later than initially planned, this was posponed temporarily as a result of the buildup to, and later outbreak of, the Galactic War. Engagements during the war showed the frigate's age was taking a toll on its performance, with deteriorating hull strength meaning they had to move slower and engage in lighter combat than they were originally designed for. With the outbreak of the Swarm War in 2633, the class was drastically overhauled at great expense to increase its viable service life for the forseeable future. This overhaul replaced worn-out or deteriorating systems and components, including in some cases whole sections of the vessel, and replaced its ageing systems with more modernised equipment. These modifications meant the Remembrance-class frigate served throughout the Swarm War as if it were a new ship class, going without another major overhaul until the war's end.

Known Ships of the Line

 Name   Hull Classification Symbol   Commissioned   Notes 
Group I

The following vessels were ordered under the UNSC Navy's initial order of 3,012 frigates, and were commissioned between 2512 and 2547. Following the production of Group II vessels beginning in 2547, surviving Group I ships were refitted to match the newer vessels.

UNSC Remembrance FFG-98 April 12, 2512 destroyed during the Battle of Miridem whilst protecting UNSC Absolution from plasma torpedo fire
UNSC In Amber Clad FFG-142 October 27, 2512 destroyed by The Flood during the Battle of High Charity
UNSC Forward Unto Dawn FFG-201 February 16, 2513 destroyed following the Battle of The Ark while attempting to return to Earth
UNSC Midsummer Night FFG-209 June 2513 destroyed during the Fall of New Carthage
UNSC Journeyman FFG-212 August 30, 2513 destroyed during the Battle of Miridem
UNSC Aegis Fate FFG-307 April 27, 2515 retired and placed in orbit above Earth as a museum ship, but not decommissioned
UNSC Providence FFG-334 November 3, 2515 destroyed during the Battle of Adrastos
UNSC Mother of Invention FFG-636 April 28, 2519 Stationed in the Sol system and first fought at and survived the Battle of Earth. Subsequently fought in the Remnant War, participating in Operations REAR GUARD and LOOSE END. Placed in reserve in February 2554, scrapped in 2562.
UNSC Lance Held High FFG-774 March 4, 2520 destroyed during the Second Battle of Harvest
UNSC Commonwealth FFG-1108 April 11, 2524 sustained heavy damage during the Battle of Chi Ceti; repaired and returned to service in 2527 but decommissioned after sustaining heavy damage at the Battle of Orthiad.
UNSC Stalwart Dawn FFG-1372 July 20, 2527 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Euphrates FFG-1547 May 3, 2529 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Ready or Not FFG-1729 May 28, 2531 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Gettysburg FFG-2011 January 9, 2535 irreparably damaged during the Battle of Earth and broken up for scrap following the battle
UNSC Fair Weather FFG-2104 September 28, 2536 destroyed during the Battle of Sigma Octanus IV
UNSC Allegiance FFG-2281 2538 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Grafton FFG-318 2539 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Savannah FFG-371 2540 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Saratoga FFG-372 2540 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Paris FFG-2406 October 5, 2539 went missing along with the UNSC Redoubtable and UNSC Coral Sea in 2552; later returned to Earth in 2556
UNSC Death's Head FFG-2714 June 23, 2543 participated in the Battle of the Ark and later rejoined the UNSC Home Fleet
UNSC Furious FFG-2758 2543
UNSC Foxhound FFG-2789 2544
UNSC Glorious FFG-2918 2545
UNSC Reliant Warrior FFG-2919 March 5, 2545 heavily damaged during the Battle of Earth, but subsequently repaired and returned to active service; fought in the Remnant War and scrapped after taking heavy damage at the Battle of Freya in 2563.
UNSC Fearless FFG-3002 December 2548
Group II

The following vessels were ordered in 2547 under the UNSC's second order of 2,000 frigates. These ships featured a number of improvements over the remaining Group I vessels, and were commissioned between 2549 and 2569. From 2561 onwards, all existing Group II Remembrance-class frigates were subject to an extensive refitting, while new vessels were built to refit standard. Surviving Group I vessels were retired concurrently.

UNSC Reunion FFG-3013 January 28, 2549 served during the Human-Covenant War, saw action at Reach and Earth. Later served throughout the Remnant War.
UNSC Resurgence FFG-3014 March 3, 2549 Fought at Reach and later damaged at the Battle of Tribute; retreated to Earth where it was later involved in the Battle of Earth. Repaired post-war and involved in several major engagements of the Remnant War. Later fought in the Remnant War including at the Battle of Korll where it took moderate damage; later served in the Galactic War.
UNSC Revelation FFG-3015 August 14, 2549 Sustained heavy damage during the Battle of Earth but was repaired from cannibalised parts from other frigates and returned to active duty; served throughout the Remnant War and Swarm War, and into the Swarm War
UNSC Redoubtable FFG-3016 December 4, 2549 went missing along with the UNSC Paris and UNSC Coral Sea in 2552, but later returned to Earth
UNSC Restless FFG-3061 August 23, 2549 destroyed during the Fall of Reach
UNSC Rapid FFG-3194 April 6, 2550
UNSC Relentless FFG-3217 December 26, 2550 served through the Remnant War and into the Galactic War, destroyed during the Battle of Oriana by Jiralhanae battlecruisers Hound and Bloodlust
UNSC Radiant FFG-3428 May 17, 2551
UNSC Restitution FFG-3511 March 9, 2552
UNSC Righteous FFG-3612 June 26, 2553
UNSC Repulse FFG-3874 March 9, 2556
UNSC Rattler FFG-4079 November 15, 2558 damaged during the Remnant War by Remnant destroyers Faithful Charge and Unwavering, later destroyed by Remnant fighters
UNSC Retribution FFG-4203 February 14, 2560
UNSC Revolution FFG-4485 November 25, 2562
UNSC Rapture FFG-4623 January 28, 2564 fought and sustained minor damage at the Battle of Glorious Salvation in 2565; severely damaged during the Galactic War by Kig-Yar cruiser Merciless and destroyer Eayn Raider on 29 March 2623, subsequently scrapped
UNSC Ravager FFG-4712 March 18, 2566
UNSC Raven FFG-4894 December 3, 2566
UNSC Ranger FFG-4995 July 17, 2567
UNSC Reclaimer FFG-5009 October 17, 2567 destroyed during the Galactic War in April 2628 by Jiralhanae bombers
Group III

In 2567, Following the completion of the previous 2,000 vessels ordered under Group II, the UNSC placed a second order for 12,510 new vessels to fill out its rapidly expanding navy. These vessels were commissioned at a rate of just under six hundred a year, with production finishing in April 2590.

UNSC Revenge FFG-5045
UNSC Reflection FFG-
UNSC Requiem FFG-
UNSC Raider FFG-
UNSC Retaliation FFG-
UNSC Redoubt FFG- Badly damaged by antimatter bomb hit on 12 August 2625 and decommissioned on 21 August
UNSC Reliable FFG-
UNSC Renewal FFG-
UNSC Renown FFG-
UNSC Reprisal FFG-
UNSC Resilient FFG- destroyed by Jiralhanae battlecruisers near Sterling-5 on February 6, 2626
UNSC Resistance FFG-11523
UNSC Resolute FFG-
UNSC Resourceful FFG-
UNSC Resurrection FFG-

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